“Blood, sweat and tears!” With the arrival of Christopher Columbus, a process of dehumanization, a regime of enslavement, a system of exploitation of man by man were established in Haiti (Kiskéya or Boyo) which was renamed Hispaniola. The habits and customs, and all the culture of the Arawak and Carib are prohibited, marginalized, and wiped out: This is Colonization! And, all those who oppose it face the harshest penalties: shooting, drowning, hanging, crucifixion… The conquistadors impose their views: “I made a convention with you: all at your expense and all for my benefit, that I will observe as long as it pleases me and that you will observe as long as it pleases me.” (“On Slavery” JJ. Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762).
Hispaniola / Saint-Domingue: A Showcase from Hell
The conquistadors will turn Haiti into a showcase from hell. From the “repartimiento,” which caused the extermination of the Amerindians of Haiti, until the night of August 14th to 15th of August, 1791 in Bois-Caiman, they use power and force to set up their instruments of domination: Black Code, Colonial Pact, trained bloodhounds… real levers for the accumulation of colossal fortunes through the exploitation of man. Then, the dread and the terror of hell settle in Saint-Domingue for these oppressed, whose descendants are mostly Haitians today.
This fact would have been a worn-out theme in the eyes of history if, in the specific case of Haiti, all human races were not involved in the scene: Amerindians, destitute Whites called 36 months or Indentured servants, Blacks from all over Africa and even some Arabs sold by poachers. In their perfidy and cynicism, their torturers devised the strategy of using the multiplicity of cultures and the plurality of dialects and languages to block any attempt at unfolding a collective consciousness.
The colonial and slave powers including England, Spain, France (now allied with Canada and the United States to form the Core Group in Haiti) are guilty in Hispaniola and Saint Domingue of the worst crimes against humanity, through the model used for the acquisition and renewal of slave livestock which strangely corresponds to kidnapping, their transport in slave ships similar to the devil’s lairs, their exhibition for purchase and sale in Croix-des-Bossales, the infrahuman conditions of housing and food, the most cruel bodily abuse, forced labor… For about 300 years, these powers decimated an entire race of men, women and children in the territory and reduced others to the state of “beasts of burden.” The life expectancy of the slave population does not exceed 27 to 30 years1.
In the heart of this hell, the tutelary Gods and the great geniuses clearly guided the oppressed. From Caonabo to cacique Henry, from the maroon Zabeth to Mackandal, the torch of contestation, resistance, freedom, regeneration, and redemption has never been extinguished. On the night of 14th to 15th of August 1791, the emergence of a collective consciousness crystallized and manifested itself, leading to the apotheosis of January 1804. Under Bouckman’s leadership, the slaves of Saint Domingue organized the Bois-Caiman ceremony which constitutes of:
- The first international congress of oppressed people
- The prelude of Pan-Africanism
- The birth certificate of Haitian Creole and Vodou
- The clear demands establishing the equality of human race, the respect and application of human rights, the total rejection of colonization and slavery through the sublime cry: “Liberty or Death.”
In this perspective, after the deportation of Toussaint Louverture, the brilliance of Jean-Jacques Dessalines, through a merciless war, waged against the most powerful armies of the time, overthrew, banished and buried, definitely in Saint-Domingue, colonization and slavery to give birth to a human, humanizing and humanist state, based on law, equity, justice, prosperity, generalized well-being. Haiti becomes the epicenter of redemption and regeneration, the star that guides the exploited and oppressed peoples, the boulevard of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.
However, the colonial and slave powers have never forgiven Haiti for shattering their racist ideology based on white supremacy. With great perspicacity, they always seek the collaboration of certain descendants of torturers, drivers, and house slaves to rout, marginalize or assassinate true nationalists, honest and sincere patriots, revolutionaries, in short, all those who have a truly Haitian soul. Thus, on October 17, 1806, didn’t they assassinate the Emperor Jean-Jacques Dessalines and consequently put aside the “Camp-Gerard Project” to make of the beloved Motherland “a showcase of failure?”
Haiti: A Showcase of Failure
From 1804 to 1825, France refused to recognize Haiti’s independence. On July 3, 1825, Baron de Mackau, captain of King Charles X’s ships, arrived in the harbor of Port-au-Prince on the frigate Circé, accompanied by brig: the Rusé and the schooner La Béarnaise, these ships being followed four or five days apart by two squadrons made up of 2 ships, 6 frigates, a corvette and 2 brigs, to impose by force, if necessary, the requirements of King Charles X, of France2. On July 4, 1825, baron de Mackau presented President Boyer with the Royal Ordinance of April 17, 1825 recognizing Haitian sovereignty over the French part of Saint-Domingue but in return for the payment of compensation of 150 million gold francs, (equivalent today to around 30 billion US dollars), intended to compensate dispossessed French settlers. The Ordinance further provided trade advantages that made France the most favored trade nation with Haiti3. This compensation imposed by France that some authors qualify as a “ransom of slavery”4, after the freedom conquered by arms and the exploitation of the slave labor force for 287 years, represented 10 times the annual income of Saint-Domingue at the time when it was flourishing, thanks to the exploitation of the colonialist and slave system. France committed a despicable crime against the Haitian people by imposing on the country an unsustainable debt, whose service exceeded its capacity, extorting all of its income and condemning the people to poverty, to the impossibility of satisfying their most basic needs, to its dehumanization and chronic underdevelopment.
The constants of a relationship between the United States of America and Haiti, based on racism and prejudices
From the United States of America’s standpoint, relations with Haiti have always been ambiguous and marked by racism and contempt. Despite the heroes of Saint-Domingue’s participation in the First American War of Independence (Battle of Savannah September 16, 1779), despite Pétion’s sending a contingent of 150 Haitian soldiers to Chalmette (New Orleans) to help them in their second war of independence against England, they always systematically refused to recognize Haiti’s independence. They were pleased to impose on the country an unequal and unfair trade, trading weapons and shoddy goods for coffee, sugar, etc., thus allowing American merchants to build large private fortunes, without ever wanting to consider a policy shift towards the recognition of sovereignty. Their perception of Haiti has always been that it is a country populated by savages that must be suppressed, a pariah state that must be isolated, despised and diplomatically ignored5. In addition to their contempt based on their claims of superiority of the white race over the black race, they also saw Haiti as a bad example for blacks in the southern states held in slavery. If slavery has been abolished in Saint-Domingue since February 4, 1794 and in fact since the proclamation of Haiti’s independence on January 1, 1804, the United States, independent since July 4, 1776 have continued to practice slavery on blacks for another 89 years, until December 18, 1865, when the Thirteenth Amendment to their Constitution came into effect, which states “Neither slavery nor any form of involuntary servitude may exist in the United States, nor in any place subject to their jurisdiction.”
Far from considering the recognition of the Independence of Haiti by France as a favorable element which would encourage them to recognize the sovereignty of Haiti, this was rather perceived as a negative element, as expressed clearly in the message of President John Quincy Adams, on December 6, 1825: “…We find new reasons against the recognition of the Republic of Haiti in what happened recently, when this people accepted a nominal sovereignty, granted by a foreign prince, under conditions perfectly suited to a state of colonial vassalage and retaining little of independence but the name.6”
And despite the great contribution of the Haitian Heads of State to the successful liberation of the peoples of Latin America: (1806: support for the expedition of the Venezuelan leader and revolutionary Francisco de Miranda; 1816: aid for the expedition of the revolutionary Mexican, General Martin Francisco Javier Mina y Larrea; 1816: support for the expedition of Simon Bolivar which led to the liberation of Greater Columbia: Columbia, Panama, Ecuador, Venezuela), the American political authorities officially recognized from 1822, the new Hispanic republics such as Argentina, Columbia, Chile, Mexico… while guided by their racism and their slave interests, they insisted on officially ignoring the existence of the Republic of Haiti. And, it was not until June 5, 1862 that the law officially recognizing the independence of Haiti and Liberia was passed and approved by President Abraham Lincoln, thanks to the tireless efforts of Senator Charles Sumner, a great advocate of the cause of the recognition Haiti’s independence by the United States of America7.
The cruellest form of expression of the United States of America’s contempt for Haiti and its desire to radicalize its isolation, materialized in its categorical opposition to this country’s participation of “savage negroes” at the top of Americas’ independent countries, held in Panama in 1826. Despite the insistence of Simon Bolivar who, out of gratitude, insisted on the presence of Haiti, the American Congress successfully opposed it, even threatened to withdraw United States’ participation if “these savages” were to be present there.
From 1862 to today, including the various periods of military occupation, the United States, reassured by its position as the world’s leading military and economic power, has constantly maintained imperialist relations with Haiti. They totally dominate the political power controlling all the elections by their contribution to the financing of the latter and by the instrumentation of the Organization of American States (OAS), of the United Nations (UN), and of the entire Core Group which allow them, by rigging the results, to place in power incompetent people, incapable of managing the country and of negotiating the defense of its political and economic interests8.
During this period, the United States, sometimes intervening directly and sometimes through an intermediary country or organization, shaped the economic structure of the country to their exclusive interests and not with the objective of combining their own interests with those of the Haitian people.
- Destruction of the country's forest cover. In 1941, they set up the Haitian American Agricultural Development Company (SHADA), which obtained a concession from Haitian President Elie Lescot, “2/3 of the Pine Forests of Haiti estimated at nearly 10,200 hectares, or 4% of the area of the country9.
- Destruction of fruit trees and pauperization of the peasant class. SHADA was established in Grande' Anse where the government expropriated peasants in its favor and according to university professor and researcher Myrtha Gilbert, “in three years, this company achieved a monstrous feat, in causing the displacement of 250,000 people as well as the cutting of a million fruit trees and 200,000 pines in the mountains of Haiti10 .”
- Soil erosion. During the occupation period (1915–1934), the Americans dispossessed (without compensation) the peasants of their fertile land in the plains, to establish large plantations, compelling them to occupy the hills that they have cleared to be able to cultivate products capable of ensuring their survival. This triggered the elimination of the country's forest cover and soil erosion, carrying tons of topsoil into the sea each year.
- Looting of mineral resources by international Companies. International companies have exploited the country’s subsoil riches, but not to the Haitian people’s benefits. Two patent cases: a) The Canadian company SEDREN, a subsidiary of the Canadian “International Halliwell Mines LTD” exploited copper ore at Mémé, Massif de Terre-Neuve, Gonaïves, from 1955 to 1971. Between 1960 and 1971, Halliwell mined about 1.5 million tons of ore, valued at US $83.5 million. Royalties accruing to the Haitian state were only US $3 million11; b) In 1956, “Reynolds Haitian Mines, Inc.”, a subsidiary of the Reynolds Metal Company, began mining for bauxite at Miragoâne with a nominal capacity of 750,000 long tons per year12. It was like a gift from Haiti to the company, as the royalties paid to the country were only US $1.88 per ton of ore exported. Subsequently, there were two tariff increases, the first by US $0.85 and the second by US $0.50 per ton. The contract was to be renegotiated at the end of 1975. Realizing that the Haitian state had been cheated in earlier contracts, the government authorities turned to CARICOM experts in Jamaica, who aided in the renegotiation process. The new contract was signed on November 17, 1975 and the royalties increased to US $15.00 per ton, starting from January 1976. It should be noted that the Reynold Metal Company was selling the ore at US $550.00 per ton on the international market13. This means that for an export of 650,000 tons of ore, the Reynolds Metal Company achieved a turnover of US $357,500,000.00 while the Haitian state collected only US $9,750,000.00 in royalties.
- Destruction of the pig herd to weaken the peasant economy. In the 1960s, the Haitian pig herd numbered around 3 million head. By 1978, at the onset of African swine fever, the number had dropped to 1,600,000 head. The reasons given were all endogenous, among others: the decline in the reproduction rate, the unavailability of food and milk in mothers suffering from malnutrition, the lack of credit for the purchase of food supplements, reduction in the area of agricultural holdings from 3.4—6 hectares to 3/4—1 hectare, etc. In one year, swine fever had destroyed about a million pigs in Haiti.
African swine fever entered the Dominican Republic from Spain and from there the virus spread to Haiti through trade at the border and across the Artibonite River, the Dominicans throwing into this river, upstream all dead pigs infected with the virus.
To put in place an isolation curtain to protect their pork industry, particularly that of the United States which, according to some studies, would have suffered a loss of $150 million to $1.0 billion if the disease ever entered their country. The three countries: United States, Canada and Mexico imposed on Haiti and the Dominican Republic the PEPPADEP, a two-part project: a) the “African Swine Plague Eradication Project” (PEPPA) which aimed to systematically slaughter one hundred percent of all pigs in both countries to contain the virus on the island, and b) the “Pig Development and Breeding” Project (DEP) which aimed at restocking pigs. If the first part of the project (the total destruction of the herd) was a priority for the United States, Canada and Mexico, they did not care at all about the second (the pig restocking14), even planning its failure in Haiti, according to some first-hand information. While the Dominican Republic succeeded in its pig restocking bet, Haiti totally failed with its own, creating simultaneously a market both for the importation of American pork, as well as for that of live American piglets and food for the breeding of this herd15.
The destruction of agriculture, especially rice production. The project to destroy the agricultural sector in Haiti was part of the American plan long before the first American occupation of 1915–1934. This enabled them to implement the first phase of their actions. The liberalization of the Haitian economy imposed on the various governments in place in 1986 and 1995 made the country entirely dependent on food imports for its supply. Over 60% of the food consumed in the country, including 80% rice, are imported. At the end of 1994, under pressure from former US President Bill Clinton, the import tariff for rice was reduced to 3%. He imposed this measure to provoke the opening of the Haitian market to rice producers in his country and more particularly in his state, Arkansas16. Haiti is now the third largest market, after Japan and Mexico for US rice producers. These measures have led to the elimination of local rice production and the impoverishment of rice producers in Artibonite and Torbeck Plain in the south of the country. Even when the author of these measures, the former US President Bill Clinton later apologized and even cried to move the emotional Haitians17, these apologies were not followed by remedial measures and the poor Haitian people continue to pay the consequences.
According to the National Food Security Coordination, in 2017 “seventy-seven percent (77%) of rural households spent at least one day and one night without eating”, because of the poor performance of production at the level of the agricultural sector, combined with “the country's strong dependence on food imports which account for more than half of food consumption and 83% of rice consumption. Food products cost between 30 and 77 percent more than the rest of the Latin America and the Caribbean region, making them unaffordable for vulnerable populations18.”
The substitution of NGOs for the State. Without any pretension of exonerating Haitian leaders who carry the palm in the field of bad governance and corruption, it must be recognized however that if the tutors had wanted to correct this deviance, they would have taken the necessary measures to this end, the latter being ruled by them with a rod of iron. On the contrary, they secretly block all the population’s attempts to demand accountability and the organization of trials for squandering public funds and for human rights violations. In other words, they deny Haiti everything they demand and apply at home, as if Haitians do not deserve what they feel is suitable for nationals of their own country.
Moreover, to achieve greater control of the country's economy, they substituted NGOs for the state instead of promoting the strengthening of the latter. They pass through NGOs the highest percentage of investments financed by external aid (with the exception of budget support, sometimes promised and not disbursed or disbursed at the end of a fiscal year for an insignificant percentage of the budgeted amount).
It would be illogical not to admit that relations between the former colonial powers and Haiti have always been characterized by hypocrisy. In an article published in the Washington Post on July 12, 2020 under the title: Haiti was the first nation to permanently ban slavery—Why this matters today? Dr. Julia Gaffield writes: “Global protests in favor of Black Lives matter have systematically exposed the legacies of slavery and colonialism today. This has put more than one on the defensive. White people are quick to tout stories of abolition, emphasizing the path bravely forged by imperial powers like Britain and France. They diminish the realities and consequences of slavery and colonialism by demanding gratitude for ending the same violent systems they previously implemented19.”
In the case of Haiti, these same powers have never forgiven it for having, through its epic, shattered their racist ideology of white supremacism. Their attitude towards Haiti prompts all conscious and patriotic Haitians to ask themselves the question: Do they want to wipe this country off the map by causing its disappearance by all means? They have acted, sometimes secretly, sometimes with their visors raised to block its development, to make it a case in point in order to offer it as an example not to be followed by other black nations on the planet. Yet Haiti has always proved to be a staunch defender of freedom and a pioneer in various fields. During demonstrations to protest police violence following the murder of Georges Floyd, angry protesters threw Christopher Columbus' status into a river. However, for Haiti, this represents déjà vu, because it has already been 34 years, since February 7, 1986 that Haitians had unbolted Christopher Columbus’ statue and threw it into the sea, to signify their rejection of this colonizer and ruthless slaver who, after having reduced the Indians of Quisqueya to slavery and having exterminated them, had introduced the slave trade in the colony of Hispaniola.
The crisis of the Haitian conscience
The quest for our dignity and our personality as a people, the principles of self-determination and respect for our sovereignty are constantly torpedoed by the great powers. The loss of the sense of belonging and the dissipation of patriotic feeling are the greatest public misfortunes that have befallen the country. Haitians have crossed the Rubicon. The lion’s share of the elite serves more the interests of foreign countries than those of their own country. Most civil society’s members have lost a sense of history and in consequence, their identity. Twenty-nine years of dictatorship followed by thirty-four years of political crises, sometimes acute, sometimes hidden, in a tutelage which does not reveal its name and a pseudo-democracy which is justified only by the fact that alternation is always the product of rigged elections, the results of which are oriented according to the wishes of powerful guardians, have overcome all the desire for leadership of civil society. This is also made up on the one hand, of certain organizations in the non-profit organizations’ sector with a humanitarian vocation and whose leaders are under the orders of their international funders, and on the other hand of certain corrupters of the private sector whose only objective is to please the political authorities to secure lots of contracts and to draw from them by overbilling exorbitant profits, for their personal enrichment and that of their accomplices in the public sector, without any consideration for the country’s financial situation and the unmet needs of an entire population.
The country is being emptied of its substance. Young people, who are the majority in the population, no longer have any benchmarks or role models. They are left to fend for themselves and condemned to unemployment. Desperate for their future, they take all the risks to flee the country, and land in Chile, Brazil or the French Antilles in search of a better well-being, with the secret hope of one day reaching the country of their dreams, the United States of America. Haiti becomes a place of transit, a land of exploitation.
As for the members of successive governments, their triage was made to measure. The international ensures that they are all drawn from the dregs of the submissive servants who have no notion of honor, prestige, state and national interest, and who do not understand that we can dialogue and negotiate with a foreign power for the defense of national interests, without deviating from its position of friend and ally of the latter.
The murder of George Floyd, this 46-year-old African-American by the white policeman Derek Chauvin, on May 25, 2020 in Minneapolis in the state of Minnesota, prompted the gloomy realization that Haiti no longer has a soul, or rather that the few Haitians who still have a soul have been driven to defeatism and resignation. They no longer dare to speak out.
While all over the world, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, as well as Italy, Denmark, Netherlands, Germany, Great Britain, New Zealand, Ireland, France, etc. thousands of demonstrators of all races, colors and social classes, had taken to the streets to protest against racism and police violence, Haiti remained serene in its indifference. Yet what other country in the world has suffered more than Haiti from the racism of the former colonial powers? Isn't the Haitian population the daily victim of police violence? Is it not the victim of beatings, tear gas, rubber bullets and even sometimes live ammunitions, when it demonstrates to claim its right to existence and to a minimum of living, while at the same time, bandits and kidnappers, who in theory are supposed to be wanted by the police, roam freely in broad daylight, give interviews to the press proudly displaying their large caliber weapons of war? Are the people not also victims of political violence and economic violence?
Should we not show our solidarity with our African-American brothers whose ancestors, like ours, lived under the yoke of slavery? Should we not have expressed our sympathy for these brothers who until the 1970s were forbidden to sit next to a white person on a bus, to enter a restaurant for white people through the front door or to frequent the same school as the whites, while we had already won our independence upon hard-fought struggle more than 150 years?
Are we the authentic sons of those heroes who bequeathed us this country at the cost of their blood and their lives, or degenerate sons who deny all the principles of ethics and moral values at the sight of hard cash?
Haiti has missed the opportunity to demonstrate, like other countries in the world, its solidarity with all those who protest against police violence, injustice and racism, with the supporters and sympathizers of the movement “Black lives matter” , and to cry out loud and clear to denounce to the world the injustice of which it still continues to be a victim. As in the case of George Floyd, the knees of the former colonial powers are still on Haiti’s neck and are squeezing its carotid artery. Haiti yells: “I can’t breathe”. She implores them to end her torment and tells them, “Please, let me breathe now.”
The sun is rising, and the shadows are declining
The situation in Haiti today is certainly distressing. The country is still officially under trusteeship, but the United Nations is ignoring its responsibility. They even invoked many pretexts not to pay compensation to the poor families of cholera victims, while scientific investigations have proven that the disease was brought to the country by their Nepalese contingent which was affected by it.
Insecurity is raging in Haiti. Every major city in the country now has two or three gangs who fight for the conquest of territory of influence, sowing mourning in families, even killing babies and pregnant women20, kidnapping whoever they please, raping women, students who return from their classes in the evening in the various colleges and kill them when their parents are not able to pay the demanded ransom, diverting containers of goods, forcing several companies into bankruptcy… Yet this situation has developed gradually, while MINUSTHA was present in the country.
The UN, the OAS and the powers of the CORE GROUP are guilty of tolerating corruption and corruptors by averting their eyes. Yet they castigate corruption, as well as impunity, injustice, insecurity, misery, violence, in their official statements21. They speak out against fraudulent elections when they control from A to Z the electoral process in Haiti and that in the opinion of a former Director of the CEP, the results published following one of the elections were not those that the counting of the ballot boxes had revealed22.
Following the sacrifices of Jean-Jacques Dessalines, the winner of colonization and slavery, following the lessons of Anthénor Firmin on the equality of human races, Haiti has always been at the forefront of most of the great movements which have achieved an act of civilization. The time for the phoenix to rise from its ashes has arrived. The “Crusade for the Development and Progress of Haiti” proposes all those who still have a Haitian soul or conscience to reclaim our history and to rise up against the UN, the OAS, the CORE GROUP and all those governments that humiliate, insult and despise the country.
A modern Bois-Caïman, an Arcahaie and a Camp-Gérard are essential. The Crusade invites all intellectuals, personalities and peoples of black countries, oppressed or formerly oppressed countries, humanists of all races, to join forces with Haitian patriots to remake the one and the true human, humanizing and humanist revolution in all of human history.
(This essay-document is composed by The Crusade for the Development and Progress of Haiti, is a civil society organization created to bring together patriotic, upright and honest Haitian men and women from all over the world, so they lead the country on the path progress and promote its social and economic development. It is also called the “Crusade.”)
|1.||« Dialogues d’Histoire Ancienne », n° 11, 1985, https://books.google.cz, p. 651.|
|2.||Beaubrun Ardouin. Étude sur l’Histoire d’Haïti/ Tome 9, p. 333–391.|
|3.||« La normalisation des relations franco-haïtiennes (1825–1838) » [article] Itazienne Eugène, Outre-Mers. Revue d’Histoire / Année 2003 / 340–341 / pp. 139–154 : Haïti Première République Noire ».|
|4.||Frédérique Beauvois, French Colonial History, Vol. 10 (2009), pp. 109–124.|
|5.||« L’indépendance d’Haïti : perceptions aux États-Unis1804–1864 » by Rose-Mie LEONARD. Outre-Mers Revue d’Histoire. /Année 2003/ 340–341 / pp. 207–225/ « Haïti Première République Noire ».|
|6.||Etienne Edy. La vraie Dimension de la Politique Extérieure des Premiers Gouvernements d’Haïti (1804–1843) Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada : Éditions Naaman. 1982 p. 144.|
|7.||Rose-Mie LEONARD, op. cit. p. 216.|
|8.||Élections 2010 : Les résultats publiés n’étaient pas ceux du CEP selon Pierre-Louis (The published results were not those of the CEP according to Pierre-Louis Opont).|
|9.||République d’Haïti, Ministère de l’Environnement, « Programme Aligné d’Action Nationale de Lutte contre la Désertification ». Avril 2015, p. 31.|
|10.||Shada, chronique d’une extravagante escroquerie, par Myrtha Gilbert, éd. Imprimeur, 2012, 2016.|
|11.||L’Industrie manière en Haïti, Enjeux et Réalités, by Gerardo Ducos. Revision and Edition : Elizabeth Garant, Jean-Claude Icart and Suzanne Loiselle, January 2016.|
|12.||République d’Haïti, Bureau des Mines et de l’Énergie, Direction de la Géologie et des Mines, « Mémento pour l’Histoire, Chronologie du Secteur Minier Haïtien (de 1492 à 2000) ». www.bme.gouv.ht|
|13.||Inter Face : « Ankèt sou Reynolds Haitian Mines, 1è Pati ». « Ankèt sou Reynold Haitian Mines nan Miragwàn, 2è pati/ Radio Haiti Archive/ Duke Digital », « Marvel Dandin and Harold Isaac report on the imminent closure of Reynold Haitian Mines in Miragwàn »…|
|14.||« Toute la Vérité sur le massacre du cochon créole ». https://lenouvelliste.com/lenouvelliste/article/83954/Toute -la-verite-sur-le-massacre-du-cochon-creole.|
|15.||« Haïti, Importation d’une nouvelle race de cochons » PEPPADEP. Publié par Bernard Leroux sur 18 septembre 2019. Le Monde du Sud||Elsie News.|
|16.||« Haïti-Production de riz/ Importation : Autosuffisance, équilibrisme ou Capitulation ». By Marcel Duret, Ex-Ambassador of Haiti in Tokio. AlterPresse, April 8, 2014. www.alterpresse.org|
|17.||“Food aid helped destroy Haiti’s ability to feed itself, ex-President Clinton says”. By Jonathan M. Katz, Associated Press, writer. Updated jan. 12, 2019, posted March 20, 2020.|
|18.||« Projet de Plan Stratégique de pays—Haïti (2019–2023) »WFP. P.5.|
|19.||Julia Gaffield, associate professor of history at George University, author of “Haitian Connections in the Atlantic World: Recognition after Revolution” (UNC Press 2015) washingtonpost.com|
|20.||https://rezonodwes.com/2020/07/26. Les gangs armés fédérés G9 pro-Jovenel Moïse accusés d’avoir tué une femme… www.lenouvelliste.com 13 juillet 2020, Un bébé de 8 mois tué par balle à Cité Soleil dans la guerre pour contrôler ce… https://www.gazettehaiti.com/node Haïti insécurité : Des bandits tuent un bébé et une femme qui serait sa mère à…|
|21.||http://binuh.unmissions.org 12 août 2020. Le BINUH, préoccupé face à la recrudescence de violence des gangs occasionnant des violations graves des droits humains.|
|22.||Élections 2010 : Les résultats publiés n’étaient pas ceux du CEP selon Pierre-Louis Opont (The published results were not those of the CEP according to Pierre-Louis Opont).|